Loading the canon: Why should I believe that my Bible is accurate? Part 4

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There are many issues that people will become contentious over. Probably the most significant of these things is religion. The crusaders went to the holy land and slaughtered thousands of easterners all in the name of god, while thousands have been slaughtered as a result of believing in no god. The Muslims have massacred just as many for the sake of their jihad. Some may think that religion has become a moot point. Because so many religions have arrived on the scene through the years, such as pantheism, panentheism, deism, Buddhism, Islam, polytheism, Hinduism, atheism, agnosticism, New Age, and postmodernism, it can be difficult to know what exactly makes a religion worth fighting for. All these beliefs have different views on God, Jesus, Scripture, and salvation.

So how does one know that Scripture is historical, accurate, authentic, and reliable?

Why are some books part of the canon while others are not?

What does the Bible, specifically the Gospels, actually teach?

Does God exist? Did Jesus claim to be God, and is His Lordship important? How does all this work in salvation?

Why is this important?

With worldviews in the conflict that they are in, it is important that the readers know how to defend themselves gone mad. when one understands the importance of not just defending the faith, but also being able to take the offensive, the initiative will be theirs.

Historicity, accuracy, and authenticity

“The Bible is a unique book. It is one of the oldest books in the world, and yet it is still the world’s bestseller. It is a product of the ancient Eastern world, but it has molded the modern Western world. Tyrants have burned the Bible, and believers revere it. It is the most quoted, the most published, the most translated, and the most influential book in the history of mankind.” No other book has received quite the same attention that the Bible has. It is either lauded as the Word of God, or seen as just a bunch of stories written by some delusional fisherman.

The word “Bible” made its way into our argot through the French taken from the Latin word “biblia” and the Greek word “biblos.” The crux of biblical studies must always begin with two words: “inspiration” and “revelation.” Inspiration and revelation have many meanings, but this author shall only, for the sake of time, highlight the proper use of the words. Revelation refers to God revealing, or unveiling, Himself to the world. In its most basic sense, it is the act of God that speaks truth to man. The key thing about revelatory truth is that before this revelation, mankind did not know this great truth. This is important because God is personal and reveals Himself to man through His imminence.

Inspiration refers to the Holy Spirit’s guiding, or superintending, over the writers of the Scripture so that they could write with their own styles and personalities while still recording the Word of God. Though the original autographs only were inspired, the copies we have today are very reliable. The original manuscripts were copied well over 20,000 times, which is far more than any other reliable historical document. There are scribal errors in the modern copies of the text, but the errors are miniscule in importance, and do not disrupt the doctrinal integrity of the book nor its teaching on the Godhead. One of the most remarkable things about the Bible is that the authors of each book (obviously guided by God) wrote their specific portion of the Bible without even knowing where exactly it would fit into the canonization.

The gospels in particular shall be the first issue of this blog. The gospels were written, according to church tradition, within the first fifty years (at least) of the death of Christ. Matthew, Mark, and Luke were all written within the first thirty years of Jesus’ death. This shows that the very men who saw Jesus live and die wrote exactly what they saw and witnessed. In the case of someone as Luke, he made a priority of writing that he investigated everything (Luke 1:1-4). Matthew recounted his own experience with Christ as he heeded the call (Matthew 9:9). Mark recorded what Peter had recited back to him. John however did not write his gospel until at least fifty years after the death of Christ. John’s gospel was different than that of his comrades’ in the fact that his writings were more spiritual in nature than narrative.

The gospels are historical documents. Perhaps their greatest defense is their specificity. They mention a specific time period, that period being Roman rule of Israel. They mention a specific governor of the Jerusalem, that governor being Pilate. It mentions specific members of the Sanhedrin, those people being Annas and his son-in-law and the current high priest Caiaphas. Jesus died a specific death that was only used by a specific people. Jesus passed through various specific locations. Jesus associated with specific people who became integral in church history. The apostles themselves referenced the events of the gospels in their later writings as though they were historical events. History has never been able to refute the gospels.

Compiling the canon

The gospels were added to the New Testament canon with almost no dispute. They were quoted or cited by almost all of the early church fathers with Augustine, Josephus, and Athanasius referencing them the most. Of the books that were actually disputed, as far as inspiration goes, the gospels were never part of that inquiry. Though there were various accounts written about Christ shortly after his death, many of them false, the gospels are the only inspired ones. The gospel writer Luke eluded to this in the first few verses of his gospel. John says at the end of his gospel that Jesus did many other works than what was written in his gospel, but the extent of them would fill most books of the world. It is the mysterious nature of those other acts that has spawned yet another topic of debate among the church. That issue would be the pseudopigraphal books, or the Gnostic gospels.

The Gnostic gospels are, for the most part, books of historical interest. Their contents contain the errors of the Gnostics (as their name implies), the docetists, and the ascetics. In short, they are heretical. The Gnostic gospels are a collection of works that were found in an ancient library in Egypt named Nag-Hammadi. They were Coptic language texts that attempted to change the way that Christians look at Jesus. The key point that they stress is this: for centuries, historians and theologians alike have all been wrong about what Christianity really is.

One must wonder, if these books (the Gnostic gospels) are accurate, then why were they not included in the canonization of the New Testament along with the other gospels? For starters, most of these Gnostic gospels emphasize a glorification of Mary the mother of Jesus, or they speak on Jesus’ childhood. Some are forgeries of letters that the New Testament writers alluded to in their books. Though these letters may have actually been sent, they were not accepted as canonical by the early church fathers, which is one of the three key criteria in admitting a book into the Bible. They also were not written by apostles or those closely associated with them. The Gnostic gospels were written across a time period spanning early first century (only one for that matter), all the way up to the sixth century. The canonical books of the New Testament on the other hand were all written within the first century. In short, these books teach things that are, more often than not, contradictory to the teaching of the gospels. With that said, this author shall now look at what the gospels actually do say.

What the gospels actually teach

The gospels give different perspectives from four different writers. With these books of the Bible Christianity lives and dies. Matthew wrote his gospel to the Jews, presenting Jesus as Messiah and King. Mark wrote to the Roman Christians presenting Jesus as the suffering servant. Luke presented Christ as the perfect Son of Man. John, as the life-giving Son of God. Matthew gives the reader the account of Jesus’ genealogy that gives Him the right to be King. Luke gives the genealogical account that tells of Jesus’ right to be Savior. The Gnostic gospels stress, to some degree or another, the worship of Mary. The gospels of the New Testament though, ironically, portray Mary as a pious woman who, rather than heaping praise upon her so-called ‘divine self,’ was in shock that she had found favor with God and that she had considered herself to be a bond-slave of God (Luke 1:38, 48). She never considered herself to be in equality with God.

The purpose of the gospels is to teach people how to know Christ and to know Him crucified. The gospels teach about Christ from the perspective of a historical narrative indicating that all these “stories” actually did happen.

Jesus, God, salvation, and their relevance

Does God exist? This question has plagued many a person for years. The Christian God comes across as so unknowable sometimes that some may wonder if he has ever taken the time to reveal Himself to mankind. How can a finite creation be traced back to an infinite creator, or an uncaused cause? This author hopes to answer these questions in the most concise way possible.

Newton’s first law of motion states that, “Every body will remain at rest, or in a uniform state of motion unless acted upon by a force.” Little kids grow up and trees grow from acorns. Kids have the potential to become adults, and acorns have the potential to become trees. But, in and of themselves, they cannot change to that state. Objects cannot have now what they will possess when they mature into a final state. Self-moving things like animals are not simply driven by molecules, for once they are dead they no longer move. Change requires an outside force to act upon it. Because the universe moves, there must be an outside source moving it, making it reach its potential. Because the universe is comprised of matter, space, and time, this being must exist outside matter, space, and time. One thing cannot move a like thing. Therefore, this uncaused cause must be an infinite being. The best example of this being is the God of the Bible.

If something has an ending, it must also have a beginning. Since the universe had a beginning, it must have a moving factor.

The next question that must be answered is the matter of moral and ethical standards and how this proves the existence of the God of the Bible. Where does man derive their standard? One might say that the government is capable of deciding what is right and wrong. This is, however, at best, insubstantial and at worst, frightening. This is what is known in Latin as mallum prohibitum, which roughly translated means “wrong because someone says it is.” Any man can tell you that there is a sliding scale for the morality of all men. The atheistic view of moral standard falls inadequately short if acquired from primordial soup or the human standard that has actually no standard with which to judge it. We are, from this point on, forced to adhere to a created-with-purpose viewpoint and that our moral purpose must exist and come down from a divine being. Again, this view coincides with the God of the Bible.

Was Jesus the Messiah and Savior of mankind? Any reader of the Gospels would realize that Jesus made some radical claims. He claimed to be not only the Son of God, but also equal with God Himself. Was this an error? Was Jesus presumptuous in His proclamation? We have three options to adhere to:

1. Jesus was a madman. But Jesus is widely regarded as a wise man and wise men are not mad.
2. Jesus was a liar. But Jesus was also widely regarded as a good man who taught good things. Good men are not liars.
3. Jesus was really the God He claimed to be. Luke even admits in His genealogical account that Jesus was the Son of God.

Jesus is God. If Jesus has the same character of God, then He must also have the same nature of God. God is not a man that He should lie, nor a man that He should repent. If he does not need to repent, then He clearly has done no wrong. Thus making Him the only sinless being to ever exist. He is therefore the Son of God, and the spotless Lamb of God. He is the only acceptable choice to be the Messiah of mankind.

The final issue addressed is that of Jesus’ salvific work. First, salvation must be possible for, without it, the Christian dies. Second, salvation must be possible for, without it, Jesus is no longer God. Third, salvation must be possible because, without it, we are the most miserable of people. The disciples of Christ have died pointlessly, horribly, and awfully. Fourth, salvation must be possible and narrow because Jesus claimed to be the way, the truth, and the life (John 14:6). If Jesus were not the only way, then God would be neither a good judge nor just. Who could serve such a God? The real answer that mankind does not want to admit is that no one could serve such a God. Ironically, this very “narrow” God is the most loving God that there could ever be. Though He will, and must, send those who reject His free gift to hell, He also claims to be a good God, and who would not want to serve a truly good God? How great God is.

The last question that must be asked then is why is this all relevant? The answer is simple: mankind must be ready to make a defense for the Christian faith. It is a charge laid down to believers by God through the apostle Peter. Heresy is out there. It has been out there since the beginning. A crafty serpent once asked the most famous question of all in Genesis chapter 3. This is not just a simple matter of religious comparison. If all roads lead to heaven, then what road are mankind and Satan actually sharing? If Jesus is not the Son of God, then who is the redeemer? If God is not just, then who is the standard? If the Bible is not the Word of God, then how can man know this infinite being? If we have no starting point for morals, then who determines morality?

These issues are relevant, and it is entirely a matter of irresponsibility for the Christian to not know how to answer these questions. These issues are the crux of the Christian faith. The Christian must know how to confront the worldviews and presuppositions of man in a world gone mad. To do this, Christians must keep one foot in the Truth and one foot in the world. This is not an attack, but a plea to the unbeliever to seek after Truth (intentionally capitalized).

The Bible must be the Word of God because it is a reputable, historical document. If it is a reliable, historical document then it must contain accurate facts that have yet to be refuted by history. If its words claim to be that of God Himself, then it must be such if it is a reliable document. If it states that Jesus is the Son of God, then it must be so since it is a reliable document. If the Bible claims that Jesus is Lord, and Messiah, then He must be so.

This post doesn’t go nearly into the depth that I wish to on this topic. That’s the point on this series. I’m going to spend a lot of time extrapolating on this more. This post is a general beginning point. Please read parts 1-3 of this same topic to get more details, and please continue reading the series, published whenever I have time in my life.

– Just

Norman L. Geisler, William E. Nix. From God to Us: How We Got Our Bible (Moody Press: Chicago, 1974).

Paul Enns. The Moody Handbook of Theology (Moody Publishers: Chicago, 1989).

John MacArthur. The MacArthur Study Bible, NASB-U (La Habra, California: Thomas Nelson, 2006).

John MacArthur. The Murder of Jesus (Nashville, Tennessee: Word Publishing, 2000).

Darrell L. Bock., The Missing Gospels: Unearthing the Truth Behind Alternative Christianities. (Thomas Nelson, 2006).

Paul E. Little, Know What You Believe (Wheaton, Illinois: Victor Books, 1975).

Peter Kreeft, Ronald K. Tacelli, Handbook of Christian Apologetics: Hundreds of Answers to Critical Questions (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1994).

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Theology Thursday: What Makes my Bible Accurate? Part 3

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When one reads a book like the Bible, whether friend or foe of it, they will find that it is inevitably a galvanizing book. The words contained within its’ pages will either make you shake with fear, or shake your fists in anger. Part of what makes the Bible such a mercurial book is the fact that it contains fantastic claims. It claims unashamedly be the written word of the God of the universe who created all good things. It also claims to be inerrant (reliable), and infallible (tells the truth).

What makes those who disagree with the Bible so angry is that if what is said within those 66 books of Scripture is true, then all who disagree with it are destined to a fearsome end. What makes the Bible even more incredible is that it claims that you don’t have to believe in the Word, but in the One (Jesus) that the word speaks of. Even when we get to that point, we have to then talk about what belief means. But that’s another topic for another day.

Today, I’m finally going to get past the introductory material of Bibliology, and really get into the theology of understanding the Bible.

God’s General Revelation

Let’s begin with two questions: What is the difference between general revelation and specific revelation? What is Progressive revelation? Let’s begin with general/objective revelation.

General, or objective, revelation is available to all people. The word revelation is derive from the Greek word apokalupsis which means “disclosure” or “unveiling.” This is why the final book of the Bible is called “Revelation”, or the “Apocalypse of John”.

When we talk about general revelation, we mean that God has revealed Himself to all (Romans 1:16-20). This revelation of God is seen in the way that the Gospel reveals the righteousness of God, in how he saves those who have repented and trusted in Jesus for salvation. But God is also revealed in His wrath in how He judges all ungodliness in the world. What these verses say, at their base definition is that every single person to ever live knows that God is real inherently because mankind is made in the image of God, and God made it evident to them. What sinful man does with this knowledge, is suppress it, and replace it in unrighteousness. Paul states in this passage that the attributes of God are clearly seen through creation, and that all people are without excuse.

I don’t have time to get into the nitty-gritty of these details of theology, but I will one day, I promise.

So, God has revealed Himself through two different aspects of general revelation. These aspects are creation, and the attributes of God seen in lesser forms in mankind. Thus, God’s revelation is clearly seen by all, and all mankind will be without excuse as they are judged according to the law of God (Romans 1:20; 2:12; Exodus 20). Therefore, God has clearly revealed Himself through His acts of creation; however, mankind rejects His revelation rather than responding in faith.

If we could sum up general revelation into three points, one could say it this way:

1. It is given to all mankind, so all know that God exists.

2. General revelation is sufficient for condemnation. General revelation is not enough to bring someone to saving faith in Jesus Christ. What general revelation does is tell us what our predicament is exactly.

3. Lastly, General revelation is designed to declare God’s greatness. It shows that He is in fact a good and righteous judge who hates injustice, and will punish all injustices one day when they are presented in His court.

Now that we’ve discussed that, let’s take this time to look at the other side of the coin. Since there is general revelation, there must be specific revelation.

As stated before in this series, God has specifically revealed Himself through specific revelation. Specific revelation is focused on Jesus the Christ, and the Word of God. Since this is a series on bibliology, let’s stick to defining Scripture as specific revelation.

What is Scripture?

Scripture is the Word of God, inspired by God, written by men who were superintended by the Spirit, so that all words are inerrant. This is the first staple of the understanding of Bibliology. The Bible stakes its reputation on the character of God Himself. Why is this important? Because Scripture is written to tell us about Christ, and how we can come to have relationship with Christ.

So let’s look at Specific revelation in Scripture.

Specific Revelation

2 Timothy 3:16, 17 – Reveals all the doctrine, rebuke, correction, and guidance that the Christian needs for good living.

2 Peter 1:21 – Reveals all that God has chosen to disclose through human authors directed by the Holy Spirit.

Specific revelation is also revealed in Christ.

John 1:18 – Reveals what the Father is like.

John 5:36-37 – Reveals the Father’s compassion.

John 6:63; 14:10 – Reveals that the Father gives life to those who believe in the Son.

So revelation is specific because it is necessary for mankind to come to a saving knowledge of Christ. Because mankind fell, man was put in a bind, or rather, they were bound to die and be separated from God forever. But specific revelation makes it possible for mankind to be saved. This revelation comes through Scripture, and through Christ.

Therefore, because specific revelation comes through the living word, Christ, and the written word, Scripture, we can come to understand that specific revelation is salvific (i.e. it saves). So if we had to sum up specific revelation in two points, it would be these:

1. Given to some. Specific revelation is given only to those who come to a saving knowledge of Christ. This would be in line with the doctrine of Calvinism. Namely, the doctrines of predestination and foreknowledge. Ephesians 1:4; 2:8-10 (this will be a discussion point when I get to Soteriology, the study of salvation).

2. Effective for salvation. Specific revelation saves those who place their faith in the word and work of Christ. That’s how salvation has always worked in the OT and NT. Old Testament saints looked forward to the coming Redeemer (Genesis 3:15), and the New Testament saints have seen Christ.

I believe that will scratch the surface of revelation and it’s variants. I know that it’s slow going, and I apologize for that, but it’s necessary to understand all this stuff so that we can better understand why the Bible is accurate, and why it works. I promise that I’ll be getting into Bibliology and the real doctrines of Scripture next week. It’s gonna be fun, and incredibly interesting for me to look at all this again with you all.

Notes for this post are taken from my class notes from Mr. Smith, as well as from Paul Enns’ Handbook of Theology.

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– Just

Textbook Tuesday: “The Lie: Evolution/Millions of Years” by Ken Ham – Part: 3

When it comes to interpreting the same data given to both parties, it all comes down to presuppositions and starting points.

After my wife and I got married in the summer of 2012, I had the great opportunity to visit the Creation Museum with her in Kentucky. Her parents were very kind and gracious to us in providing the funds for us to go on a honeymoon. Now, I’d always been passionate about apologetics, especially defending the faith in regards to evolution vs. creation. The fact of origins is the battleground of our day for atheist and Christian alike.

The reason this is so important is that Christians and atheists have exactly the same information presented to them in regards to how we got here. The past has passed us by, and now we are left with looking at what is currently here. This is the information that is left to us. How do we interpret this in accordance with observational science and historical science? The problem is that the mystery of origins is a matter of historical science, not observational science, as discussed previously in this series.

When it comes to interpreting the same data given to both parties, it all comes down to presuppositions and starting points.

This is something that the ministry of the Creation Museum really hammered home in my wife’s and my visit there. They wanted to make sure that the visitors were able to understand that our worldviews shape how we interpret all data presented to us. There are two lenses with which we see the world around us. These lenses are polar opposites of each other and therefore, one is skewed, or rather, one makes what we see skewed. That, ultimately, has been the purpose of my review of Ken Ham’s book, “The Lie”. To show that science and faith are not at war, just misunderstood, or rather, taken hostage might be a better term. Christians need to understand that science is being ripped right out from under our noses. We need to look through the lenses of Scripture and see the science in front of us through the lens of Scripture and God’s word. Historical science, like all mankind, must bow before the authority of God’s word. This is the worldview that Christians live with. This is why we think what we do. To understand what is said on this blog theologically, please try to understand this worldview.

Those diametrically opposed views, are God’s word vs. man’s word. Whether you’re an atheist, or a Christian, I highly recommend attending. It is a sight to see. Prepare to believe. With that said, let’s begin a review of chapter 3 of “The Lie”.

Chapter 3

This chapter is a quality explanation of how creation and religion work together, and how science is corroborated by Scripture.

“Biblical creation is based on the Genesis account of origins from the Word (the Bible) of the One who is a witness of past events — who has always been there (and who is, in fact, outside of time).” page 53

What this quote is saying, in essence, is that the theology of creation is based entirely on the witness of God who has communicated it to us through His written word (Scripture). Ken Ham, and myself, believe that God communicates this truth through 7 C’s. This is a prominent feature of the Creation Museum as well. The purpose of this creation theology is that it carries itself throughout all of Scripture. From cover to cover, this theology is seen throughout. These C’s, and their definitions, are as follows: (these are taken from pages 53-56; some of my thoughts are sprinkled in).

1. Creation: When we refer to creation, we are meaning that God created everything from nothing in 6 literal, 24-hour days. Because God is a God of unity, we believe that all of creation is designed to work perfectly together in harmony. God created all plants, animals, and the first two people whose names were Adam and Eve (the first marriage. These beings were placed in the Garden of Eden, where there was no death of nephesh creatures (nephesh is the Hebrew word referring to the life principle, or soul). People and animals, all people and animals, were vegetarian.

2. Corruption: Sadly, we have to talk about the bad news, and where it went wrong. Regrettably, Adam and Eve fell into sin, and we fell with them. Adam, as our representative, failed, and as a result, we fell with him. We went from living in perfect harmony with God, to living in opposition to him. As a result, death and struggle entered the world. Creation was cursed. Darwin called this death and struggle natural selection, and he replaced this with the need for a Savior. As this theory was fleshed out, accidental hereditary changes were added, known as mutations, which brought disease, defects, and decay, as opposed to creating. But God had a plan to bring us back to fellowship with Him. In Genesis 3:15, God promised a redeemer. (Romans 8:22).

3. Catastrophe: The effects of sin on mankind were devastating. So devastating that every thought of man at the time of the global Noahic flood was only evil continually. God chose to destroy the world with a global flood, and punish mankind because of the evil depths they had sunk to. God promised He would never do this again. Humanity would be preserved through a man named Noah, and his family. Animal kind would be preserved through the animals that were brought on board the ark. The fossil record is a reminder to us today of God’s judgment on sin. Creationists see the fossils as the graveyard of a flood roughly 4,300 years ago that struck the earth. Evolutionists see the fossil record as the evidence for millions of years.

4. Confusion: When Noah and his family stepped off the ark, they were given the same command that God gave to Adam and Eve — be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth. The people that proceeded from Noah failed to fulfill this command. They congregated together to build what would be called the Tower of Babel, a structure designed to reach to the heavens and bring people to God. It is entirely possible that these people were wanting to worship the heavens, rather than God Himself. Because they failed to do what God had commanded them, God confused their languages (Genesis 11) and forced them to separate because of their divided speech. It was here, in Genesis 11, that humanity started to develop people groups, and cultures.

5. Christ and Cross: This one counts as two of our 7 C’s. Now we come to the cure for sin, promised in Genesis 3:15. God was not going to leave man without any hope. God promised mankind that He would provide a way for them to fellowship with Him once again, and He provided it through God the Son, Jesus the Christ, the God-man, fully God. Fully human, Christ, by His death on the cross and resurrection defeated death, and restored those of mankind who believe to fellowship and eternal life with God. (Genesis 3:15; Romans 10:9).

6. Consummation: It is without doubt that God destroyed the world with a flood, and it is without doubt that this same God who created the world will destroy this same world with fire in the last days. For those who have repented and trusted in Jesus Christ, there will be no more curse because God has removed it. Those who reject the salvation offered by Christ, suffer the second death, the most terrible death of all — eternal separation from God. (Revelation 20:14; 2 Peter 3:10).

It is these 7 C’s that give us an adequate framework with which to read and interpret Scripture. In the Christian worldview, the Bible tells us that God knows everything, or that God is omniscient (omni = all, science = knowledge).

“This means the Bible is the Word of someone who knows everything there is to know about the past, the present. and the future.” page 56. Because of this, our understanding of origins is based off of the eyewitness account of the being with absolute knowledge, who was there for it all as it happened. We must judge what people say on the merit of what God’s word says — not the other way around. “If the Bible is not the infallible Word of the One who knows everything, then we can never know for sure that we can come to right conclusions concerning the origins issue.” page 57.

What do we learn from all this then? We can learn that the Bible and science are not at war. Let me explain. For decades, Christians have come to believe that religion and science don’t go together. We have been brainwashed into thinking this to be the case. But the Bible is a book, to a large degree, on historical science.

When scientists use historical science, science of origins, we look at the Bible and what is says about history and see if the evidence of present does fit. Ham uses the following example: “We are too that God created living things ‘after their kind’. We can postulate, therefore, that animals and plants should be found in groups or kinds, and that one kind cannot change into a totally different kind (as proposed by evolutionists, i.e., molecules to man evolution). In fact, this is exactly what we do find (in living as well as fossil organisms) — animals and plants exist in groups or kinds.” pages 58-59.

Creationists acknowledge that there are adaptations happening within the family level (biblical kind) in the classifications system. Though there may be different genera, and species within a family, these changes or adaptations occur only within a kind. In other words, there are boundaries that cannot be crossed. Natural selection (adaptation) while observed, does not in any way lead to molecules-to-man evolution. Such changes are the opposite of those needed to such a process. Ham states, “This example of observational science that confirms the Bible’s account of created kinds, but it is evidence against Darwinian evolution.” page 59.

We see how creationists use observational and historical science as well in interpreting the data of the flood, and the human race. When we look at fossils and how they have to be formed, a global catastrophic flood is the best explanation for that occurrence. Observational science is confirmed by the historical science of Scripture. In 2000, through the work of Dr. Venter and his team, the human genome project confirmed that there is one race of humanity — the human race. page 59

There are no Darwinian higher and lower races, for we are all descended from one race — the human race, stretching all the way back to Adam and Eve. pages 60-61

So science and religion are not feuding families after all. They must work in harmony, and be used to strengthen the faith of Christians everywhere. Ham stresses in this chapter that Christians need to understand what science is, observational and historical, and learn how to think biblically for themselves. By doing this, they will learn how to sniff out when secularist teachers are enforcing their own presuppositions without any real evidence, and without actually using the proper method of science in the first place.

From creation to consummation, God’s caring hand is present in this beautifully designed world. The more I learn about science and dive deeper into the Word of God, the more I learn that this world I’m living in is logical, orderly, and scientifically made.

Ham spends the rest of the chapter giving further examples to prove his point. The examples are quite powerful, and if you want more details on them, I recommend that you buy the book, or simply ask in the comments below and I will provide them for you personally.

If you read the article, please share it, and leave a comment in the box below!

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If you can spare 35-odd minutes, check out this video from Ray Comfort and Living Waters Ministries. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U0u3-2CGOMQ

interested in Ken Ham’s book? Purchase it here! http://www.answersingenesis.org/store/product/lie-25th-anniversary-edition/

Curious about Answers in Genesis and the Creation Museum? Need answers to bolster your faith? Check out these websites! http://www.answersingenesis.org and http://creationmuseum.org

– Just

Sources:

answersingenesis.org/articles/nab2/why-sixty-six

answersingenesis.org/articles/am/v3/n2/world-graveyard

answersingenesis.org/articles/am/v3/n2/world-in-revolt

answersingenesis.org/articles/aid/v3/n1/zonkeys-ligers-wholphins

answersingenesis.org/articles/ee/natural-selection-vs-evolution

nytimes.com/2000/08/22/science/do-races-differ-not-really-genes-show.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm

“One Blood, One Race” by Ken Ham.

Blog Postpwned: The Ties that Bind

Normally, this would be my Monday Morning DM post day, but I decided to put the blog on hiatus to celebrate the end of the school semester, spend time with my wife and son, and to go on vacation to see our respective parents for Christmas.

As much as I would love to keep brining you highlights of my D&D sessions, weekly textbook readings, League of Legends travails, Theology lessons, and family tips, I really need to take this time to invest in the lives of those around me now that I actually have time.

So until January 13th, see ya, nerds.

– Just

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Theology Thursday: What Makes My Bible Accurate? Part 2

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Last week I spent the entire blog post defining the terminology that was going to be used throughout this series, what theology is, and what a worldview is. I also took a bit of time to discuss what the 7 main worldviews are when it comes to religion. Today I’m going to expound on that idea a bit more by looking specifically at the Christian worldview.

I’m glad you’re back for my second part in this series. I’m enjoying the study. I hope you are too. The purpose of this study is so that you, the reader, may gain an understanding of the doctrines that characterize the Christian faith. I really hope that you’re a skeptic. I really do. That’s the point of me writing this. I want the skeptics to come to an understanding of what our doctrines actually are. That said, let’s dive in and look at what the Christian worldview is.

The Christian Worldview

When looks seriously at the Christian worldview, there are three essential elements that must be looked at. These elements are:

1. God

2. The universe.

3. Mankind.

When we gain an accurate understanding of these three elements, we will better understand the Christian worldview. With that said, let’s start the same way the Bible does–God.

Who is God?

That is a radically important question for us to ask ourselves. “What comes into our minds when we thing about God is the most important thing about us.” – A.W. Tozer.

So how do we answer this question? Who is God? For the purposes of this article, this is the definition that I will use when I refer to God in attributive sense.

God is a Spirit, infinite, eternal, and unchangeable, in His being, wisdom, power, holiness, justice, goodness, and truth.

John 4:24 says, “God is Spirit;; and they that worship Him must worship Him in Spirit and in truth.”

Psalm 90:2 says, “From everlasting to everlasting, thou art God.”

Malachi 3:6 says, “For I am the Lord, I change not.”

Exodus 34:6 says, “The Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth.”

Here we can start develop an understanding of who God really is. God is a Spirit, and must be worshipped in truth. Not just any truth, relative truth. But in THE truth. God is eternal/preexistent. He’s not a created being. He’s the uncaused cause. The original mover. He does not change in His character. He is consistent in His plans. He is patient.

From these we develop two terms that have come to characterize God in theology: transcendence, and immanence. Let’s look at these carefully.

God is transcendent.

Genesis 1:1 “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.”

In the beginning (the beginning of time-space), the infinite God, the God who is not bound by time-space, created out of nothing (ex nihilo). This is corroborated by Hebrews 11.

God – a simple statement. The writers of these beginning books do not give arguments of His existence, but God – strong one supreme deity, as His existence is a given.

What does it mean when a Christian speaks of God being transcendent?

God is unique, holy, set apart, distinct, and separate from His creation. He is independent, eternal, and self-existent. In a quick statement, He does not need His creation to exist. God is not part of the created order, because He created the order. Therefore, He exists outside of His creation, independent, and the order relies on Him. Therefore, God has authority and He is in control.

What does it mean that God is immanent?

God is personal presence. He is involved. He speaks, acts, cares, and redeems. God is not a God who is out there. God is among His creation, and He acts. He’s simply watching on a heavenly security camera all the coming’s and goings of the world. He is acting today among His people. He is personal and caring. This is why Allah and Jehovah are inherently different, and why Christians and Muslims do not worship the same God.

“Now the Lord said” – Genesis 12:1. He established His covenant with Abraham (Genesis 15) and He reestablished His law with Israel (Exodus 20). He did these things personally. That’s important.

“And the Lord appeared” to the Fathers (Genesis 12:7, Acts 7:2;) to Israel (Exodus 19). And the Lord acted – miracles (Exodus 3:20; 4:8; 6:1-8), history of Israel (Acts 7), and redemption (Romans 9; Revelation).

All a part of God being personal, is that God is knowable. This goes back to my first post and one of our necessary presuppositions for theology. God exists, and has revealed Himself to man. Therefore, God is knowable.

Knowledge of God produces obedience (John17:26; II Peter 1:3, 5; 2:18-20). Obedience to God leads to knowledge (John 7:17; Ephesians 3:17-20; II Timothy 2:25f; I John 3:16; Psalm 110:10; Proverbs 1:7; 15:33; Isaiah 33:6).

John Frame says in his book Knowledge of God, “It is certainly true that if you want to obey God more completely, you must get to know Him; but it is also true that if you want to know God better, you must seek to obey Him more perfectly.” Knowledge grasped without faith undermines it.

Therefore, because God is personal, we can determine that God has communicated with us, since He is personal and desires to know us. This begs the question, how has God communicated with us?

1. His general revelation (Romans 1:20-21). General revelation refers to God revealing Himself through creation (intelligent design), and through our inherent knowledge of who God is. Paul says in Romans 1 that mankind is born with an inherent knowledge that God exists, but this knowledge is suppressed and replaced by mankind’s rebellious hearts. Creation declares God’s presence.

2. His law upon the hearts of mankind (Romans 2:16). Mankind knows what sin is.

3. His written Scripture (II Timothy 3:16-17). God has revealed Himself through His Scripture. That is after all what these posts are all about, and I promise I’ll be getting to defending the Christian Scripture next week. These things had to be defined before we got there. Had to establish the ground work.

4. His living Word (logos: John 1:1, 14, 18). This is referring to Jesus the Christ, the Messiah, God the Son, and God come to Earth.

5. His living letters (II Corinthians 3:2-3). This is referring to Christians who are representatives of Christ, bearing the Holy Spirit (another doctrine I’ll get to at some point).

We now have a summation of who God is at a quick glance (really quick glance). Now we can look at the last two elements briefly.

Finally, when it comes to understanding God, we must understand Him as creator.

When God created, it was creation out of nothing (ex nihilo). The Hebrew word for shape is bahra.

The creation was, as described in Scripture, formless and void (Heb. tofu wobohu).

Formless – without form, shape, unfashioned

void – empty, unfilled, no life forms.

But He didn’t leave everything that way. Because in the next 6 days, God formed and filled the Earth.

God created everything by a particular method. He created all by His powerful Word. Hebrews 11 says that these things were brought about by Christ. The use of these words suggests a significant word play. God, who in Exodus 3:14 is known as “I Am,” says “Let there be” and there was.

What is so important to note is the accounts of creation mentioned in Genesis are historical, not poetry. This is a narrative. It’s an historical account. The reason for regarding it as historical is that this is the way other biblical accounts view it (Exodus 20:10, 11; 31:17; Matthew 19:4-6; Hebrews 4:4; II Peter 3:5).

God’s creative design was completed in six days. This is the culmination of understanding God in His transcendence and immanence.

By these things we know that God created everything in 6 days:

1. The Hebrew use of the word, “yom.” When this word is used with a number in the Old Testament, it is always used to reference a literal 24-hour day. This post is not about 6-day creation though. If you want to argue that, wait for another post on creation.

2. The biblical account is clear and is not figurative. It’s not poetry. The beginning chapters of Genesis are narrative, historical, and literal.

3. The weekly design of that we experience today is clearly taken from a design perspective that finds its origins in the book of Genesis.

That is a long introduction, but I felt that those things were necessary to understand before we get into any sound study of theology. I promise that we’ll get into Bibliology next week, and that I’ll begin to really explain why the Bible is trustworthy, reliable, and accurate.

*Information used here is from several sources, but the majority is taken from my class notes from Mr. Tim Smith’s class on Bibliology.

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– Just

Textbook Tuesday: “The Lie: Evolution/Millions of Years” by Ken Ham – Part 2

When I read through a book like Ken Ham’s “The Lie,” I can’t help but realize and appreciate more and more that we are in a battle for truth. Religion has become a truth war. As Ken Ham points out, this lie is something that has permeated every fabric of our culture. Some of us have fallen prey to it without even realizing it, or even the gravity of it. Thankfully, there are people like Ken Ham, and organizations like Answer in Genesis who put out literature like this that is rational and reliable for Christians to use to combat the sinful thought of our days. I’m glad you could join me for part 2 of this blog post, sorry it wasn’t out on time yesterday.

I visited a dear friend of mine in the hospital which took precedence over this post. With that in mind, please enjoy my analysis of chapter 2 of Ken Ham’s “The Lie: Evolution/Millions of Years.”

Chapter 2

Ham opens this chapter by doing something that I believe is most effective in establishing a good argument. He begins by defining the terms he’s going to use throughout the rest of the book. Page 43 states, “I wish the reader to understand that the term evolutionist is used to mean those who believe that molecules-to-man evolution (biological evolution) – in the sense of time, chance, and struggle for survival (naturalism) – is responsible.

From here he goes on to further explain what exactly those terms mean in that definition. Cosmological evolution deals the supposed big bang theory origin of the universe. Geological evolution deals with the years taken to lay down the sedimentary rock used for fossil-bearing. For future purposes though, when Ham uses the word evolution from here on, it will mean biological evolution unless stated otherwise (biological evolution does imply geological and cosmological evolution) according to Ham.

Ham shares with the reader on page 44 what exactly kind of war is being fought here. As a Christian, one of the chief arguments I hear from my friends on the atheist side of the debate is that I as a Christian will refuse to adhere to sound logic. I am accused of believing in an irrational idea, that was the mental product of knuckle scraping bronze age goat-herders. In other words, even if I were presented with irrefutable proof that the Scriptures of God were wrong, I am accused of my beliefs being physically unable to change because I am too stupid.

Ham then shares quotes by The Southern Skeptic (the official journal of the Australian Skeptics), and Richard Dawkins, respected biologist and author. In one issue of The Southern Skeptic, Ham references a quote of theirs that read the following, “Even if all the evidence ended up supporting whichever scientific theories best fitted Genesis, this would only show how clever the old Hebrews were in their use of common sense, or how lucky. It does not need to be explained by an unobservable God.” Dawkins likewise said that even if a “great big giant 900-foot-high Jesus…strode in and said, ‘I exist. Here I am,’ ” his mind likely still would not be changed.”

This is the mindset that we are dealing with here. It is this very mindset that refuses to budge even so slightly as to wonder whether God does exist or not. The problem that these people realize is that once they start to wonder whether or not God exists, they no longer become atheists because they have opened themselves to the possibility that the supernatural is out there. This is what Ham is trying to get at. These atheists are working from their starting point, or premise, that states that there is no way, no how, that the Bible could possibly be the Word of God. Don’t bore them with the facts, because even if they exist, they aren’t real. Either our Scripture is a joke if false written by foolish shepherds, or it’s true and written by some witty Hebrew slaves. Either way, the argument fails to be rational or willing to see flaws.

As stated in Chapter 1, Ham says that the problem in this debate is that we are viewing it as science v. religion, when it actuality it is religion v. religion. The religion of Christianity v. the religion of evolution.

Page 45: To understand the crux of the issue, we need to first understand the differences between historical science, and observational science. Historical science has to do with knowledge of the past and origins. Observational science has to do with knowledge gained by direct observation, like technical progression. Observational science is used in the fields of empiricism and repeatable tests. Both Christians and non-Christians use observational science in the same way. The differences between Christian and non-Christians is historical science.

Ham says that evolutionists are guilty of mixing observational science with historical science and calling it science wrongfully. Ham then goes on to give some examples of how evolutionists do this:

1. When a scientist claims that a rock is metamorphic, and igneous, he is using observational science. When that same scientist then says that rocks are millions old, he/she’s shifted to historical science since we’re talking origins now.

2. Observing speciation resulting in natural selection is observational science. If this is claimed as evidence of evolution though, now we’re talking about historical science, since we’re talking about a “mechanism for evolution.”

3. Element decay being observed would fall under the umbrella of observational science, but extrapolating backwards with assumption after assumption to estimate radioactive decay to determine the age of the rock shifts into historical science.

As you can see, there is a distinct difference between these two fields of science. Ham fairly points out that there are highly respected scientists who believe in evolution. Scientists who use observational science to build rocket ships and send people to the moon, and rovers on Mars, their observational science is to be applauded.

The problem with atheistic evolution (historical science) is that it is based on a religious philosophy, a philosophy that refuses to believe that the Bible’s account could ever be true no matter what. It’s not valid under any circumstance. Biblical creationists and evolutionists share the same observational science, but differ drastically when it comes to historical science.

Creation scientists are convinced that observational science overwhelmingly confirms the historical science of creation, the Noahic Flood, and the Tower of Babel in Scripture, and that it denies evolution by lack of confirmation. The Bible confirms the historical accounts of these events, and observational science confirms their historicity.

On Page 47, Ham quotes famous atheist, Theodosius Dobzhansky who says, “Evolution is a light which illuminates all facts, a trajectory which all lines of thought must follow.” As Christians we must realize what a direct denial of blatant Scriptural truth that this is. On a logical level, Theodosius states that evolution is a light essentially illuminating all thought in the world. The problem is that the beliefs and theories of evolution are changing yearly so often, that one has to conclude that this light changes hues at least every year because evolutionists simply do not have all the information in front of them so as to make proper informed opinions about historical science. Their claims have to constantly be adjusted because they weren’t there to see the big bang, the molecules to man evolution, or several millions of years. Some will say, but Christians weren’t there to see creation happen either. That’s true. We weren’t there. But we are reading the words of the eyewitness account that was there. God was there creating all that we know. He was there, and shared His account with us. All the evidence that evolutionists have exists only in the present.

In John 8:12 Jesus says, “I am the Light of the world. He who follows Me shall not walk in darkness, but have the light of life.” In Isaiah 2:5 we are commanded to “Walk in the light of the Lord.”

The 11th edition of Webster’s Dictionary defines religion as “a cause, principle, or system of beliefs held to with ardor and faith.” This defines Christianity, and it certainly defines biological, cosmological, and geological evolution. Evolution must be considered a religion.

Page 48 states that scientists do not dig up fossils with age tags on them. Nor do dig sites accurately explain how several different species came to live together at once and be buried together. Here’s the rub, we can’t use observational science to say that these animals lived together because we weren’t there. We can’t determine how they lived because we weren’t there. Museums can’t reconstruct an environment in which organisms probably lived in if the researchers were never there to find out.

Page 49 states one of the powerful quotes of the book: “The only way anyone could always be sure of arriving at the right conclusion about anything, including origins, depends upon his knowing everything there is to know.”

Page 50 states, “Evolutionists do not have an origin witness, but Christians do.” This is the main point: If we want to have a proper and correct understanding of historical science, then we have to come at the problem with the proper and correct viewpoint. That viewpoint is Scripture because it is the eyewitness account of the only one who was there when it all began. Because the beginning viewpoint of creationists is Scripture, which cannot be changed, then our view of the beginning origins cannot be changed. We won’t change our beliefs because our viewpoint can’t change. Evolutionists will change because they don’t have all the information.

Page 51 is where Ham delivers another poignant quote. “I find over and over again that biblical creationists will admit the belief aspect of their origins account, but secular evolutionists usually refuse to do this! It is all a part of how they attempt t brainwash the public by falsely labeling creation as religion and evolution as science.”

Christians need to wake up to this horrifying fact–evolution in all its forms (cosmological, biological, and geological) is a religion that is trying to explain the universe without God. We’ve been pulled into the lie, and getting out of this mire is incredibly difficult.

Next week I’ll look at chapter 3 of this eye-opening book.

Powerful words. If you read the article, please share it, and leave a comment in the box below!

Interested in reading more of my banter? Click the “follow blog” tab at the top of the page and I’ll keep churning out material for you.

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If you can spare 35-odd minutes, check out this video from Ray Comfort and Living Waters Ministries. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U0u3-2CGOMQ

interested in Ken Ham’s book? Purchase it here! http://www.answersingenesis.org/store/product/lie-25th-anniversary-edition/

Curious about Answers in Genesis and the Creation Museum? Need answers to bolster your faith? Check out these websites! http://www.answersingenesis.org and http://creationmuseum.org

– Just

Theology Thursday: What makes my Bible accurate? Part 1

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Christians make a lot of claims about their faith and religion. The heart of these claims is centered around the fact that we believe that the Bible is completely inerrant and infallible. The Bible makes radical claims, there is no getting around that. The claims of Scripture are both incredible and terrifying at times. What scares a lot of people about the Bible, and what draws a lot of ire out of a lot people, is the absolute claims made by Scripture. It doesn’t take a rocket scientist to say that Scripture sometimes comes across as having very stringent standards.

To that I would agree. But are these standards really restrictive? More importantly, is the Bible being given a fair chance when it comes to discussion both in the church and out of the church? Personally, I don’t believe that it is. That will be the point of this, and the next few Thursday blogs: to explain what the doctrine of Bibliology is, to explain why the Bible is accurate, why the Bible is trustworthy, why the claims inside it are trustworthy, and why you and I must do what the Bible commands. It’s going to be a fun ride, so bear with me.

Rules of Engagement

Before I begin really getting what exactly Bibliology is, I want to use this week to really explain the background of theology, and why we as Christians study it the way we do. The purpose of this is for you to genuinely go about understanding this issue with a desire to learn. With that said, let’s get started.

What is theology?

At it’s most simple definition, theology is the study of God concerning His works and His word. The word theos in Greek means God, and the word logos means Word/reason. There are other definitions to theology that might help shed light on this issue.

According to Charles Ryrie, “Theology is the discovery, systematizing, and presentation of the truths of God.”

Lewis Sperry Chafer defines theology as “the collecting, scientifically arranging, comparing, exhibiting, and defending of all the facts from any and every source concerning God and His works.”

Wayne Grudem says that theology is “any study that answers the question, ‘What does the Bible teach us today?’ about any given topic.”

Within theology there two different kinds of theology: Biblical, and Systematic. Biblical theology is the study of a specific writer or era. Systematic theology is a form of theology in which the aim is to arrange religious truths in a self-consistent whole. Simplified terms: systematic theology is the logical and rational categorizing of theology. The way that we get to these areas of theology is by sound exegesis. Exegesis means basically, to lead out, or draw out. In terms of theology or preaching, it means to draw meaning out of the text. To let the text do the explaining of the text.

Next, we must discuss what the necessary presuppositions are for theology. To get there, we must first define accurately what a presupposition is. This is so critical to understand because all people have presuppositions in one way shape or form. All people have biases, and starting points. A presupposition is a set of beliefs that are assumed or presupposed in advance. Literally, it’s a launching pad for our thoughts. It is the absolute foundation for how we interpret ideas. It’s a starting point, a foundation belief or assertion that is accepted without proof.

Now that we have an understanding of that, and that all people have presuppositions, we must now look at this question: What are the necessary presuppositions of theology? These three presuppositions are what colors the ideas of a theologian, and a Christian. These presuppositions are as follows:

1. God exists and He has revealed Himself to man.

2. That mankind can know and believe in God.

3. That the Scripture is the Word of God.

Those are the presuppositions of theology in a nutshell. That is the foundational nature of what exactly it is that Christians study. Theology is the rational study of the work, and Word of God. From here, I want to look at worldviews and how they color the perspective of all people. Once we understand this lens, and combine it with the lens of theology, we will be better able to understand why Christians believe the Bible is the Word of God.

What is a worldview?

How we live and how we think influences every decision that we have made. A worldview is the filter by which one lives (conduct of life and decisions) and explains existence. Simply put, it is the compass that guides us through our decisions whether morally, or not.

Norman Giesler states. “A worldview is how views interpret reality. The German word is Weltanshaung meaning a ‘world and live view,’ or paradigm.’ It is the framework through which or by which one makes sense of the data of life. A worldview makes a world of difference in one’s view of God, origins, evil, human nature, values, and destiny.” To change the way that someone understands anything that you think, you must first break down whatever worldview they have, or communicate the truth to them in such a way that their worldview is no longer the best option available.

Ronald Nash says, “A worldview is a set of beliefs about the most important things in life.” Everyone has a worldview whether they can articulate it or not. If someone is making a moral decision, they are doing it based off of their worldview. There are 5 key elements that are necessary to understanding a worldview.

God – He exists. He is one. He is immanent (personal). He acts. His nature is holy and just.

Metaphysics – God’s creation. God is the sustainer and holder of the universe. The universe is open, not closed. The universe exists within time and space, God exists outside of time and space since He is infinite.

Knowledge – Knowledge is possible about the world. We can trust our senses. Reason is an aid. Knowledge about God is possible.

Ethics – Yes there are absolutes. God determines reality. God determines what is wrong.

Humankind – Genesis 1:26-28. God breathed life into humanity. Humans are capable, yet directed.

It is within these 5 elements that we will learn how to understand theology. It is these 5 elements that color all the worldviews. With that being said, we will close by understanding what exactly the different worldviews are.

So what are the different worldviews? That question enough is easy to answer, but a harder question to ask is what can we do, and what can we know?  Job 11:7-8 says, 7 “Can you discover the depths of God? Can you discover the limits of the Almighty? 8 “They are high as the heavens, what can you do? deeper than Sheol, what can you know?

What are the issues this question raises? Hebrews 11:6 says, “He who comes to God must believe that He is, and that He is the rewarder of those who seek Him.” We must believe something, in order to know something.

That statement then begs the question, “Does God exist?” “He who comes to God must believe that He is …”

An atheist says, “I know and the answer is no!”

An agnostic says, “I don’t know and the answer is I don’t know!”

A theist says, “I know and the answer is yes!”

When we fully employ what theology is, and what a worldview is, we will wind up at one of the following 7 options of belief in God. Where do you line up?

1. Atheism – No! God is nothing!

2. Pantheism – Yes! God is everything!

3. Panentheism – Yes! God is in everything!

4. Deism – Yes! God is out there!

5. Polytheism – Yes! God is many!

6. Monotheism – Yes! God is one!

7. Biblical theism – Yes! God is One in three persons!

When anyone studies theology, and applies their worldview, they will wind up at one of these 7 options. Therefore, the questions that I want you, my readers, to ask yourselves this week as I bring this post to a close is this:

Does God want to know me? Do I want to know Him?

It is the answer to these questions that very well could define you for the rest of your lives. Use this coming week to evaluate what your worldview is, and where you fall into in those 7 seven options. Next week we’ll get into what exactly makes the Christian worldview the Christian worldview. We’ll continue to combine these thoughts until we gain a quality understanding of what Bibliology and the doctrines that define it.

*Information used here is from several sources, but the majority is taken from my class notes from Mr. Tim Smith’s class on Bibliology.

If you liked what you read, please share the article! Follow me on Twitter by clicking the “follow” button on the left of the screen.

If you want to read more from my blog of gaming, theology, and family, click the “Follow blog” tab at the top of the screen.

– Just